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    David Odonkor. likes · 9 talking about this. Instagram: @odonkor Businesskontakt: [email protected] David Odonkor ist ein ehemaliger Fußballspieler aus Deutschland. Odonkor spielte zuletzt bei Goverla-Zakarpattia Uzhgorod (Goverl). Er spielte auf der Position. David Odonkor [ˈdeːvɪt oˈdɔŋkoːɐ̯] (* Februar in Bünde) ist ein ehemaliger deutscher Fußballspieler und jetziger -trainer.

    Most bite mark analysis studies use porcine skin pigskin , because it is comparable to the skin of a human, and it is considered unethical to bite a human for study in the United States.

    Limitations to the bite mark studies include differences in properties of pigskin compared to human skin and the technique of using simulated pressures to create bite marks.

    In recognition of the limitations of their study, Kouble and Craig [18] suggest using a G-clamp on an articulator in future studies to standardize the amount of pressure used to produce experimental bite marks instead of applying manual pressure to models on pigskin.

    Kouble and Craig compared direct methods and indirect methods of bite mark analysis. In these experiments, direct comparisons were made between dental models and either photographs or "fingerprint powder lift-models.

    Transparent overlays are made by free-hand tracing the occlusal surfaces of a dental model onto an acetate sheet.

    The use of transparent overlays is considered subjective and irreproducible because the tracing can be easily manipulated.

    On the other hand, photocopier-generated overlays where no tracing is used is considered to be the best method in matching the correct bite mark to the correct set of models without the use of computer imaging.

    While the photocopier-generated technique is sensitive, reliable, and inexpensive, new methods involving digital overlays have proven to be more accurate.

    Both methods use Adobe Photoshop. Use of the 2D polyline method entails drawing straight lines between two fixed points in the arch and between incisal edges to indicate the tooth width.

    Use of the painting method entails coating the incisal edges of a dental model with red glossy paint and then photographing the model.

    Adobe Photoshop is then used to make measurements on the image. A total of 13 variables were used in analysis.

    Identification for both methods were based on canine-to-canine distance one variable , incisor width four variables , and rotational angles of the incisors eight variables.

    The 2D polyline method relies heavily on accurate measurements, while the painting method depends on precise overlaying of the images.

    Although both methods were reliable, the 2D polyline method gave efficient and more objective results. Recently, the scientific foundation of forensic odontology, and especially bite mark comparison, has been called into question.

    An investigative series by the Chicago Tribune entitled "Forensics under the Microscope" examined many forensic science disciplines to see if they truly deserve the air of infallibility that has come to surround them.

    The investigators concluded that bite mark comparison is always subjective and no standards for comparison have been accepted across the field. The journalists discovered that no rigorous experimentation has been conducted to determine error rates for bite mark comparison, a key part of the scientific method.

    Critics of bite mark comparison cite the case of Ray Krone , an Arizona man convicted of murder on bite mark evidence left on a woman's breast.

    DNA evidence later implicated another man and Krone was released from prison. Although bite mark analysis has been used in legal proceedings since , it remains a controversial topic due to a variety of factors.

    DeVore [23] and Barbenel and Evans [24] have shown that the accuracy of a bite mark on skin is limited at best. Skin is not a good medium for dental impressions; it is liable to have a number of irregularities present before the imprint that could cause distortion.

    Also, bite marks can be altered through stretching, movement or a changing environment during and after the actual bite.

    Furthermore, the level of distortion tends to increase after the bite mark was made. Both studies suggest that for the bite mark to be accurately analyzed, the body must be examined in exactly the same position it was in when the bite occurred, which can be a difficult if not an impossible task to accomplish.

    Therefore, bite marks found at the scene are often analyzed under the assumption that they have undergone minimal distortion. The lack of research may largely be due to the fact that such studies are difficult to organize and are very expensive.

    Bite mark analysis is also controversial because dental profiles are subject to change. The loss of teeth or the alteration of arch configuration through a variety of procedures is common in human populations.

    The onset of oral diseases such as dental caries has been shown to alter the arch and tooth configuration and must be taken into account when comparing a dental profile to the bite mark after a significant amount of time has passed since the mark was made.

    While the methods behind collecting bite mark evidence at the scene are leading toward greater standardization, the methodology behind analyzing bite marks is extremely variable because it depends upon the preference of the specific odontologist.

    As discussed earlier, there are several methods used to compare bite marks ranging from life-sized photographs to computer enhanced three-dimensional imaging.

    These methods vary in precision and accuracy, and there is no set standard by which to compare or analyze them. Some odontologists even disagree on whether or not a mark on the body is the result of a bite.

    One possible issue facing bite mark analysis is a lack of bite mark uniqueness in any given population.

    Bite mark analysis is based on the assumptions that the dental characteristics of anterior teeth involved in biting are unique amongst individuals, and this asserted uniqueness is transferred and recorded in the injury.

    A study performed by MacFarlane et al. They also used plaster of paris as the substrate to simulate skin, yet the two materials have very different properties.

    However, in this study the probabilities used to make this claim are based on the assumption that the position of each tooth was independent of all the others.

    For example, braces apply force to specific teeth, in order to shift the placement of multiple teeth.

    One particular case that highlighted the lack of uniqueness in bite marks involved two suspects accused of attacking a man who had sustained a bite mark injury.

    They reported conflicting results. One found the mark to come from suspect A and the other said it was from suspect B.

    This disagreement resulted from the fact that even though the two suspects had dental features making them unique, the bite mark itself was not detailed enough to reflect them.

    Therefore, the mark could have reasonably come from either of the men. Most of the controversies facing bite mark analysis are due to the lack of empirical supporting evidence.

    When searching the entire MedLine database from to , only 50 papers in English were found that related to bite mark analysis.

    The lack of research has led to the continued use of a few outdated and limited studies to support the validity of bite mark analysis.

    This brings into question whether or not there is enough scientific support for bite mark analysis to be employed in court. There have been several instances when forensic dentists have made claims, accusations, and guarantees supported by bite mark evaluation that have been proven incorrect through other forensic sciences.

    DNA analysis has shed some light on the limitations of bite mark analysis because often the DNA from saliva surrounding the area of the bite mark proves to be a more reliable form of identification.

    In the case of Mississippi vs. For a crime scene investigator, taking DNA samples is as common as taking pictures of the scene.

    Krone , the defendant was sentenced to death, which was overturned. Then Krone was later reconvicted and given life in prison.

    Both convictions were based largely on bite mark evidence, but ten years later DNA evidence surfaced that identified the real killer and Krone was set free.

    Not only can the age of a human specimen be narrowed by evaluating the patterns of tooth eruption and tooth wear, recent studies provide evidence that cementum , the mineralized tissue that lines the surface of tooth roots, exhibits annual patterns of deposition.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Forensic science Physiological. Psychiatry Psychology Psychotherapy Social work.

    Accounting Body identification Chemistry Facial reconstruction Fingerprint analysis Firearm examination Footwear evidence Forensic arts Profiling Gloveprint analysis Palmprint analysis Questioned document examination Vein matching.

    Electrical engineering Engineering Fire investigation Fire accelerant detection Fractography Linguistics Materials engineering Polymer engineering Statistics Traffic collision reconstruction.

    The University of Western Australia". Retrieved 25 September Archived from the original PDF on Journal of Forensic Science.

    Archived from the original on Disaster Victim Identification, D. Journal of Forensic Sciences. At the end of the procedure, light can now enter through the plastic cylinder, and the patient is able to see through this cylinder with good vision.

    The procedure was pioneered by the Italian ophthalmic surgeon Professor Benedetto Strampelli [9] in Rome in the early s.

    The son of the geneticist and agronomist Nazareno Strampelli , Benedetto Strampelli held the chair of ophthalmic surgery at Rome's Ospedale di San Giovanni in Laterano where he was one of the first surgeons in Italy to transplant cornea.

    In he was the first Italian to implant intraocular lens which were manufactured to his own design by Rayners in UK. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis Specialty ophthalmology [ edit on Wikidata ]. Archived from the original on Clinical and histological long-term features of three prostheses".

    Retrieved from " https: Dentistry procedures Eye surgery Ophthalmology Surgical procedures and techniques.

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    The conviction in this case set the stage for bite marks found on objects and skin to be used as evidence in future cases. Marx , which occurred in California in She was bitten several times on her nose.

    Walter Marx was identified as a suspect and dental impressions were made of his teeth. These samples along with other models and casts were evaluated using a variety of techniques, including two-dimensional and three-dimensional comparisons, and acetate overlays.

    Four organizations are dedicated to the field of forensic odontology, in the USA. The University of British Columbia program is the only one in North America that provides graduate training in forensic odontology.

    Currently, dental impressions collected as evidence are compared only to those collected from a given suspect, which may bias the resulting outcome.

    Using multiple dental impressions in a lineup may enable forensic odontologists to significantly decrease the current bias in matching bite marks to the teeth of a suspect.

    In , the ABFO began making an attempt to diminish the discrepancies and increase the validity of bite mark analysis by creating bite mark methodology guidelines.

    The guidelines attempt to establish standard terminology in describing bite marks and that reduces the risk of biased results. The ABFO also provides advice on how to effectively collect and preserve evidence.

    For example, they recommend that the collection of DNA evidence and detailed photographs of bites be taken together at the crime scene. The guidelines also outline how and what a forensic odontologist should record, such as the location, contours, shape, and size of a bite mark.

    According to the ABFO, the guidelines are not a mandate of methods to be used, but a list of generally accepted methods.

    Kouble and Craig used a simplified version of the ABFO scoring guidelines in order to retain accuracy with a larger sample of comparisons. The higher the score, the greater the similarity.

    In order to simplify the model, some features that were individually scored in the ABFO guidelines such as arch size and shape were assessed together while certain distinctive features such as spacing between teeth were treated as a separate variable.

    The authors believe that a simplified version would increase the strength of the comparison process. Upon collection of dental evidence, the forensic odontologist analyzes and compares the bite marks.

    Studies have been performed in an attempt to find the simplest, most efficient, and most reliable way of analyzing bite marks.

    Bites can occur on both the victim and the suspect; teeth are used as weapon by the aggressor and in self-defense by the victim.

    In addition to the location of the bite mark the type of severity of the injury may give investigators clues as to the mental state of the offender.

    Bite marks may be found on the flesh of victims of a violent attack, particularly on the stomach or buttocks. Alternatively they may be found on the suspect, left by the victim during self-defense.

    Bite marks can be altered through stretching, movement, or change in environment after the bite. There is also no set standard by which to analyse and compare bite marks.

    Factors that may affect the accuracy of bite mark identification include time-dependent changes of the bite mark on living bodies, effects of where the bite mark was found, damage on soft tissue, and similarities in dentition among individuals.

    Other factors include poor photography, impressions, or measurement of dentition characteristics. Most bite mark analysis studies use porcine skin pigskin , because it is comparable to the skin of a human, and it is considered unethical to bite a human for study in the United States.

    Limitations to the bite mark studies include differences in properties of pigskin compared to human skin and the technique of using simulated pressures to create bite marks.

    In recognition of the limitations of their study, Kouble and Craig [18] suggest using a G-clamp on an articulator in future studies to standardize the amount of pressure used to produce experimental bite marks instead of applying manual pressure to models on pigskin.

    Kouble and Craig compared direct methods and indirect methods of bite mark analysis. In these experiments, direct comparisons were made between dental models and either photographs or "fingerprint powder lift-models.

    Transparent overlays are made by free-hand tracing the occlusal surfaces of a dental model onto an acetate sheet.

    The use of transparent overlays is considered subjective and irreproducible because the tracing can be easily manipulated.

    On the other hand, photocopier-generated overlays where no tracing is used is considered to be the best method in matching the correct bite mark to the correct set of models without the use of computer imaging.

    While the photocopier-generated technique is sensitive, reliable, and inexpensive, new methods involving digital overlays have proven to be more accurate.

    Both methods use Adobe Photoshop. Use of the 2D polyline method entails drawing straight lines between two fixed points in the arch and between incisal edges to indicate the tooth width.

    Use of the painting method entails coating the incisal edges of a dental model with red glossy paint and then photographing the model. Adobe Photoshop is then used to make measurements on the image.

    A total of 13 variables were used in analysis. Identification for both methods were based on canine-to-canine distance one variable , incisor width four variables , and rotational angles of the incisors eight variables.

    The 2D polyline method relies heavily on accurate measurements, while the painting method depends on precise overlaying of the images.

    Although both methods were reliable, the 2D polyline method gave efficient and more objective results. Recently, the scientific foundation of forensic odontology, and especially bite mark comparison, has been called into question.

    An investigative series by the Chicago Tribune entitled "Forensics under the Microscope" examined many forensic science disciplines to see if they truly deserve the air of infallibility that has come to surround them.

    The investigators concluded that bite mark comparison is always subjective and no standards for comparison have been accepted across the field.

    The journalists discovered that no rigorous experimentation has been conducted to determine error rates for bite mark comparison, a key part of the scientific method.

    Critics of bite mark comparison cite the case of Ray Krone , an Arizona man convicted of murder on bite mark evidence left on a woman's breast.

    DNA evidence later implicated another man and Krone was released from prison. Although bite mark analysis has been used in legal proceedings since , it remains a controversial topic due to a variety of factors.

    DeVore [23] and Barbenel and Evans [24] have shown that the accuracy of a bite mark on skin is limited at best. Skin is not a good medium for dental impressions; it is liable to have a number of irregularities present before the imprint that could cause distortion.

    Also, bite marks can be altered through stretching, movement or a changing environment during and after the actual bite. Furthermore, the level of distortion tends to increase after the bite mark was made.

    Both studies suggest that for the bite mark to be accurately analyzed, the body must be examined in exactly the same position it was in when the bite occurred, which can be a difficult if not an impossible task to accomplish.

    Therefore, bite marks found at the scene are often analyzed under the assumption that they have undergone minimal distortion. The lack of research may largely be due to the fact that such studies are difficult to organize and are very expensive.

    Bite mark analysis is also controversial because dental profiles are subject to change. The loss of teeth or the alteration of arch configuration through a variety of procedures is common in human populations.

    The onset of oral diseases such as dental caries has been shown to alter the arch and tooth configuration and must be taken into account when comparing a dental profile to the bite mark after a significant amount of time has passed since the mark was made.

    While the methods behind collecting bite mark evidence at the scene are leading toward greater standardization, the methodology behind analyzing bite marks is extremely variable because it depends upon the preference of the specific odontologist.

    As discussed earlier, there are several methods used to compare bite marks ranging from life-sized photographs to computer enhanced three-dimensional imaging.

    These methods vary in precision and accuracy, and there is no set standard by which to compare or analyze them.

    Some odontologists even disagree on whether or not a mark on the body is the result of a bite. One possible issue facing bite mark analysis is a lack of bite mark uniqueness in any given population.

    Bite mark analysis is based on the assumptions that the dental characteristics of anterior teeth involved in biting are unique amongst individuals, and this asserted uniqueness is transferred and recorded in the injury.

    A study performed by MacFarlane et al. They also used plaster of paris as the substrate to simulate skin, yet the two materials have very different properties.

    However, in this study the probabilities used to make this claim are based on the assumption that the position of each tooth was independent of all the others.

    For example, braces apply force to specific teeth, in order to shift the placement of multiple teeth. The procedure was pioneered by the Italian ophthalmic surgeon Professor Benedetto Strampelli [9] in Rome in the early s.

    The son of the geneticist and agronomist Nazareno Strampelli , Benedetto Strampelli held the chair of ophthalmic surgery at Rome's Ospedale di San Giovanni in Laterano where he was one of the first surgeons in Italy to transplant cornea.

    In he was the first Italian to implant intraocular lens which were manufactured to his own design by Rayners in UK.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis Specialty ophthalmology [ edit on Wikidata ]. Archived from the original on Clinical and histological long-term features of three prostheses".

    Retrieved from " https: Dentistry procedures Eye surgery Ophthalmology Surgical procedures and techniques. Webarchive template wayback links.

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